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Directions of the development OF heating boilers of the Ukrainian district heating system under conditions of present-day ecological requirements

Teslenko O.I., PhD (Engin.)
Institute of General Energy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 172 Antonovycha str., Kyiv, 03150, Ukraine
Language: Ukrainian
Source: The Problems of General Energy, 2020, 2(61):30-37
https://doi.org/10.15407/pge2020.02.030
Section: Forecasting, systems analysis, and optimization of the structural development of the energy sector
UDC: 620.9:628.5
Received: 30.04.2020
Published: 15.07.2020

Abstract:

The district heating system (DHS) of Ukraine was formed during 1960−1980. The existing boilers and furnace rooms of the DHS with a nominal heat capacity of 50 MW and more are physically worn out and technologically obsolete. Emissions of nitrogen oxides are the main emissions of contaminants at the combustion of natural gas in the boilers of DHS of Ukraine and currently constitute about 200−240 mg/nm3 without using the technologies of their reduction.
Ukraine has implemented the provisions of Directive 2010/75/EU, which limit the emission of nitrogen oxides from large natural gas combustion plants (in particular, from boilers of DHS) to no more than 100 mg/nm3.
The enhancement of energy efficiency, reduction of thermal energy consumption, and structural technological changes cause a gradual significant decrease in the installed capacity of DHS boilers in Ukraine: according to forecasts, from 80 GW (2015) to 20 GW (2040).
We consider the possible directions of development of powerful boilers of DHS in Ukraine to 2040 under conditions of modern ecological requirements: progressive (high-cost replacement of all existing boiler units by modern energy-efficient and environmentally safe ones, which requires $ 585 million investment), traditional (medium-cost technical reconstruction of the existing boilers for their compliance with environmental requirements with the extension of their service life, which requires $ 292.5 million), and conservative (low-cost modernization of the existing boilers to meet environmental requirements only, which requires $ 97.5 million).
We calculated the weighted average cost of heat for the life cycle of powerful DHS boilers by the directions of development given above. It is shown that this indicator for reconstructed and modernized boilers is higher by 7−11% than for new modern boilers due to the lower energy efficiency of existing boilers, the higher costs for their maintenance, and the greater environmental taxes. This leads to further low competitiveness of the existing boilers under the current environmental requirements and the increase in prices for natural gas and environmental taxes.

Keywords: heat supply, boiler, thermal energy, weighted average cost, ecological requirements, emissions.

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