Scenarios of the Development of district heating systems in of Ukraine, included to the National Plan for the reduction of emissions

Teslenko O.I., PhD (Engin.), https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3772-5991
Institute of General Energy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 172 Antonovycha str., Kyiv, 03150, Ukraine
Language: Ukrainian
Source: The Problems of General Energy, 2019, 4(59):54-62
https://doi.org/10.15407/pge2019.04.054
Section: Study and optimization of the technological objects and systems of the energy sector
UDC: 502.3:662.613.5
Received: 04.11.2019
Published: 27.12.2019

Abstract:

Emissions of nitrogen oxides are the main emissions of pollutants from the burning of natural gas at the boilers of district heating system of Ukraine and currently are to 200 – 240 mg/nm3 without the use of technologies for reduction.
The integrated application of technologies that prevent the primary formation of nitrogen oxides with a total efficiency of their total reduction of 50-60% will ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2010/75/EC (the concentration of nitrogen oxides in flue gas cannot exceed 100 mg/nm3) at boilers district heating system of Ukraine, included in the National Plan for Reducing Emissions from Large Combustion Plants with a thermal power of 50 MW or more. The total specific costs for the integrated implementation of these technologies for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions are from 165.88 to 283.35 UAH/kW of installed heat power of a boiler or a boiler house.
We formed scenarios for the development of these boiler houses of district heating to achieve compliance with the new, more stringent environmental requirements of Directive 2010/75/EC: progressive (technical re-equipment by replacing physically worn out and technologically obsolete boilers with modern energy-efficient ones), traditional (complete reconstruction of existing obsolete boilers with an extension of time of equipment operation), and conservative (modernization of existing boilers only to ensure compliance with new environmental requirements).
For these boilers were determined the necessary capital expenditures for the implementation of proposed development scenarios. Under the progressive scenario, the capital costs of replacing boilers with a total heat output of 0.675 GW, which were put into operation before 1960, will be equal to 546.75 million UAH. According to the traditional scenario, the capital costs for complete reconstruction of existing boilers with a total thermal capacity of 3,518 GW, which were put into operation from 1960 to 1980, will be 1,424.79 million UAH. According to the conservative scenario, the capital expenditures for modernization of boilers with a total thermal capacity of 1.252 GW, which were put into operation from 1980 to 2011, will constitute 338.04 million UAH.
The total capital expenditures for the development of 20 boiler houses of the district heating system of Ukraine with a total heat output of 5.445 GW included in the National Plan for Reducing Emissions from Large Combustion Plants, under these scenarios are ~ 2.31 billion UAH (85.54 million US dollars).

Keywords: district heating, hot water boilers, environmental requirements, development scenarios, capital expenditure.

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