Generalized mathematical model and features of adaptive automatic frequency and power control systems

Kulyk М.M., Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Professor, Dryomin I.V., Cand. Sci. (Eng.)
Institute of General Energy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 172 Antonovycha St., Kyiv, 03680, Ukraine
Language: Ukrainian
Source: Problemy zahal`noi enerhetyky - The Problems of General Energy, 2015, 4(43):14-23
Section: Mathematical modeling of energy facilities and systems
UDC: 621.311.661
Received: 16.11.2015
Published: 03.12.2015
Abstract: The generalized model for processes of automatic frequency and power control (AFPC) in interconnected power systems that enables to carry out studies of AFPC systems using generators-regulators, controllable loads, and AFPC adaptive systems.
The models of AFPC adaptive systems consists of universal AFPC models earlier developed by the authors by introduction in regulatory functions the adaptive components that are obtained based on the equations of power balance in the power system. Using the developed AFPC adaptive models the complex of computer calculations were conducted with changes in a wide range of key indicators of generating and control sources of power system (speed, time constants, frequency).
Usage of adaptive models significantly reduces the length of transition process in energy system during operation of AFPC system. In particular, in power activation of 1000 MW, frequency tolerances Δ = 0.02 Hz, regulator speed = 40% Рregnom/sec and its constant time = 0.5 sec the duration of process control in AFPC system with adaptation is 16.1 sec and is reduced 2.2 times compared with the system without adaptation and 4.4 times – compared with AFPC system, formed using hydroelectric power plant.
In AFPC systems with adaptation, maximum frequency deviation is significantly reduced (more than 30%) compared with the system without adaptation in case of other equal conditions.
Maximum frequency deviation at Δ = 0.2 Hz with increasing the controller operation speed for both systems is reduced. However, for system with adaptation this phenomenon manifests itself more radically. The result of it is that for the systems with adaptation in case of controller operation speed is more than 30% Рregnom/sec, inequality mах < 0.2 Hz is achieved, i.e. even at very large disturbances quasi mode is ensured. For systems without adaptation such important result is not achieved even at speed 80% Рregnom/sec.
The use of AFPC adaptive models provides multiple increase of their speed without any additional process costs, and only by improving the control laws. This feature significantly improves not only technological but economic efficiency of adaptive AFPC systems, since to double, for example, the speed of AFPC system formed from power unit of pulverized-coal-fired power plant, it is necessary to double the number of such units.
Keywords: power system, frequency, power generator, regulator, consumer, operation speed, automatic control.
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