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Ecological aspects of energy and environmental protection

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Ivanenko N.P., Sas D.P. State regulation of greenhouse gases emissions in the world: prospects for Ukraine Ivanenko N.P., Sas D.P. State regulation of greenhouse gases emissions in the world: prospects for Ukraine

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Board № (full): 2 (49) 2017 year
Filesize: 337.67 kB
Downloads: 3479
Different approaches to  the state regulation of greenhouse gases emissions that are used in the world are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach in comparison with others are analyzed. The world experience in effective use of the carbon tax as one of the approaches to the state regulation of greenhouse gas emissions is reviewed. The current situation in Ukraine is analyzed, and recommendations for the effective application of the carbon tax in Ukraine are proposed. The approaches to the determination of carbon tax are developed.

Keywords: greenhouse gases, allowance trading scheme for greenhouse gases, carbon tax.

 Bilodid V. D.  Forecast of volumes of the accumulated of the waste, as a consequence of the development of nuclear power in the twenty-first century Bilodid V. D. Forecast of volumes of the accumulated of the waste, as a consequence of the development of nuclear power in the twenty-first century

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Board № (full): 1 (32) 2013 year
Filesize: 703.54 kB
Downloads: 5680
The results of calculations are resulted in relation to the amount of well-educated radio-active elements as a result of work of nuclear power plants for period from 1954 to 2010. As a result of comparisons of natural radio-activity overhead 16 kilometers layer of continental the earth's crust and the same layer, in which the evenly nebulized is produced radio-activity from AES, it is shown that general activity of crust was increased for this period on 1,86 %.
Assumption is done, that general increases of making of electric power by nuclear power plants to the end of present age will be in scopes to 2 % per a year. In this case, after the done calculations, to 2100 year by these power-stations will be produced wastes of radio-active matters which will increase average activity of crust almost in 10 times (the value of the produced activity will make a value at level (780–800)•1012 Ci).
Conclusions are made in relation to further development of nuclear energy of Ukraine, one of which is:
Ukrainian nuclear energy, which is one of the most powerful in the world (on NPP in 2010 it was made 47.3% of all electric power), and which occupies 2-nd place after France, requires rethinking and its further development must take a place with slowing down increase. Credible volumes of electricity production at nuclear power plants for the period up to the year 2100 should be carefully justified without the use of myths about its safety and efficiency.

Keywords: radioactive waste, environmental impact of NPP operation, radioactivity of the continental crust and nuclear power plants.

 

Volchyn I.A., Haponych L.S. Estimation of pollutants emissions at Ukrainian thermal power plants Volchyn I.A., Haponych L.S. Estimation of pollutants emissions at Ukrainian thermal power plants

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Board № (full): 4 (59) 2019 year
Filesize: 309.73 kB
Downloads: 0
We proposed an algorithm for estimating the emission of pollutants (sulfur dioxide, dust, and nitrogen oxides) depending on the amount of supplied electric and thermal energy for each year of the operation of burning facility as a part of power unit or a boiler house. By this algorithm, we calculated the emission of sulfur dioxide at the Ukrainian thermal power plants (TPP) in 2017 and 2018. The results of calculations coincide with the available data of power plants and calculations by the standard procedure, based on using information about fuel consumption and its elemental composition. The values of SO2 concentration in dry flue gases of the Ukrainian TPP in 2017 and 2018 were 1520–5900 mg/nm3, and the gross SO2 emissions were about 620 thousand tons. The specific SO2 emissions at the Ukrainian TPP during last years take values of 14–15 g/kW h of supplied electricity as compared with the level for coal fired-power plants of EU countries of 1.2 g/kW h. This is explained by the absence of desulfurization facilities at the Ukrainian TPP and the high level of specific fuel consumption for the electricity production.
By the proposed algorithm, we calculated the maximal emissions of SO2 according to the order of Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine of February 16, 2018 No. 62. They were equal to 936.9 thousand tones. However, NERP envisions the decrease in SO2 emissions at the  Ukrainian TPP to 51 thousand tones in 2018. Furthermore, after January 1, 2029, Ukraine must provide the satisfaction of required SO2 concentration in flue gases of Ukrainian TPP no higher that 200 mg/nm3 as follows from the Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions. The present-day level of SO2 concentration exceeds this limiting value by a factor of 8–25. To reach the European requirements, it is necessary to construct a modern gas-cleaning equipment with an efficiency no lower than 96%.
Keywords: thermal power plant, environment, supplied electricity, flue gas, emissions, pollutants, sulfur dioxide, limit emission values

Dubovskyy S. V., Kobernik V. S.  Technical and economic evaluation of promising environmental conservation technologies in the thermal power engineering of Ukraine Dubovskyy S. V., Kobernik V. S. Technical and economic evaluation of promising environmental conservation technologies in the thermal power engineering of Ukraine

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Board № (full): 2 (33) 2013 year
Filesize: 863.81 kB
Downloads: 6068
The article deals with discovering of economically efficientl ways of meeting environmental commitments under the technological standards of permissible emissions from thermal power plants with rated thermal output over 50 MW.
Technical and economic comparison by average cost of electricity production during life cycles of promising environmental technologies ready for implementation at power units reconstruction was carried out.
Introduction of high efficient environmental technologies was proved to be unattractive for investments under conditions of competitive market at current tax values on emissions of major pollutants, but it can become attractive due to a 10 times increase of the tax as compared to the current level, set by the Tax Code of Ukraine.

Keywords: thermal energy, environmental technologies, flue gas, emission tax.

Kobernik V.S. Economic analysis of the use of energy conversion technologies at the thermal power plants of Ukraine Kobernik V.S. Economic analysis of the use of energy conversion technologies at the thermal power plants of Ukraine

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Board № (full): 4 (51) 2017 year
Filesize: 1.72 MB
Downloads: 3447

We performed technical and economic calculations and comparison of promising projects of new construction and reconstruction of power units at thermal power plants by different technologies, providing the attainment of modern emission standards for the main pollutants. We analyze  the influence of the hryvnia exchange rate against the dollar and prices of coal and gas on the average cost of electricity for the life cycle at introducing new energy conversion technologies at thermal power plants.

Keywords: thermal power plant, supercritical steam parameters, fast fluidized bed, flue gas cleaning, cost of electrical energy.

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