Study and optimization of the technological objects and systems of the energy sector

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Kulyk M. M. Techno-Economic Aspects of Using Consumers-Controllers in Automatic Frequency and Power Control Systems Kulyk M. M. Techno-Economic Aspects of Using Consumers-Controllers in Automatic Frequency and Power Control Systems

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Board № (full): 1 (40) 2015 year
Filesize: 1.34 MB
Downloads: 3302
The Integrated Power System (IPS) of Ukraine in its current state operates as a part of the Power Association consisting of power systems of the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the Baltic Sea States. This Association makes use of common automatic frequency and power control system (AFPCS) that utilizes hydroelectric power plants (HPP) of the Power System of Russia. System emergencies (disconnections of NPP units) that occurred in Ukraine over the last few years showed an acceptable efficiency of AFPCS. However, such situation cannot be considered as normal, and under current conditions it cannot exist for a long time due to a series of factors, the most salient of which are energy security, joining the European power system ENTSO-E, competitiveness, etc. That is why there is an urgent need of developing a modern, full-featured and proprietary AFPCS within the framework of the IPS structure in Ukraine.
The comparison of key performance indicators of considered variants of building the AFPCS secondary control subsystem indicates the absolute superiority of the structure using consumers-controllers (CC) in the form of heat pump systems (HPS).
The construction of AFPCS based on controlled load customers involves the investment costs which are by UAH 8.235 billion (USD 1.03 billion or by 38%) less than the traditional variant employing generators-controllers.
The AFPC system based on CC ensures the net annual profit in the amount of UAH 23.4 billion (USD 2.92 billion) and the payback period of investments equal to 0.58 year, while the same indicators for the system with traditional structure amount to UAH 0.81 billion (USD 0.1 billion) and 26.8 years, respectively.
The system using CC reduces the consumption of natural gas at boiler-houses and thermal power plants (TPP) by 4.33 billion cubic meters at the cost of UAH 20.51 billion (USD 2.56 billion) that is required for the production of 33.9 million Gcal of heat because HPS consume the electric power produced without any use of natural gas. This factor guarantees both high economic efficiency of the specified variant of the AFPCS structure and considerable rise of the energy security of the state.
The AFPCS structure based on CC consumes annually 4.43 million tons of r.f. (reference fuel) (3.1 million tons of o.e. (oil equivalent)) of waste technogenic heat and the environmental heat that, besides ensuring the rise of its economic efficiency, reduces the greenhouse gas emissions and emissions of other harmful substances.
The annual economic effect of the AFPCS structure based on CC as compared to the traditional structure amounts to UAH 22.59 billion (USD 2.82 billion).

Keywords: automatic frequency and power control, consumer-controller, generator-controller, heat pump station, net profit, capital investment, payback period, economic effect.

Bilodid V. D. Assessing the possibilities for improving energy efficiency of TPPs based on flue gas heat exchangers and using heat pump installations Bilodid V. D. Assessing the possibilities for improving energy efficiency of TPPs based on flue gas heat exchangers and using heat pump installations

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Board № (full): 2 (41) 2015 year
Filesize: 2.34 MB
Downloads: 2633
Possible volumes of exhaust flue gas heat recovery by using heat pump installations at Ukrainian TPPs have been determined. The heat recovery system diagram provides for a waste heat exchanger installed at the flue gas paths with recovered heat being transferred to the centralized heating system by a heat pump installation. 
The problem is that changes in the TPP load bring about changes in the boiler output. As a result, the heat flow carried out by flue gases also changes. It is therefore necessary to determine optimal capacity of the heat pump installations, which will provide maximum efficiency of such plants throughout the year.
A method is presented to calculate optimal capacity for heat pumps at TPPs according to steam pressure. Possible fuel saving has been estimated for the system of the largest Ukrainian TPPs with the total installed capacity of 4,936 MW. The optimal capacity of heat pumps for the plants is 273 to 340 MW, including 99 to 120 MW pumpts for 8.8 MPa steam pressure TPPs, 107.5 to 134 MW pumpts for 12.7 MPa steam pressure TPPs, and 67 to 83 MW pumps for 23.5 MPa pressure TPPs with flue gas recovery being 60% and 80%. It is demonstrated that the total energy saving may be achieved in the range of 250,000 to 550,000 tons or more of standard fuel per year depending on the condition of the equipment and heat pump capacity, and subject to the improvement of the average efficiency of the boilers by 7 to 9%.

Keywords: TPP, heat recovery, centralized heating system, heat pump, calculation methods, fuel saving.

Bilodid V. D., Derii V. О. Heating system accumulative capability Bilodid V. D., Derii V. О. Heating system accumulative capability

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Board № (full): 3 (42) 2015 year
Filesize: 804.52 kB
Downloads: 2998
Thermal capacity accumulation is essentially present in any heat supply system. First the heat source heats the heat carrier (actually this is the process of accumulation of heat in fluids) then the heat carrier return the accumulated heat to consumers. In addition, it is vital if it is necessary for emergency dump of the heat energy from non-standard heat generators, such as electrothermal load-controlled consumers that can be used to adjust the frequency and active power of integrated energy system of Ukraine [1], which is currently relevant.
The object of the work is to determine the influence of materials of heating networks on their accumulative capacity.
The conducted analysis allowed to identify the main construction materials of the heating networks affecting its to total accumulative capability and assess the degree of influence of each of them for typical series of pipelines. It was established that pipeline materials and pipeline insulation are basically influence on it. It is shown that the degree of the effect does not exceed 9% and can therefore be taken into account by using the correction factor, which value is determined for all typical series of pipeline system.

Key words: heating networks, accumulation, pipeline, insulation, correction factor.

Babin M. E., Grigoriev R. V., Dubovsky S. V., Levchuk A. P. Annual fuel efficiency individual gas boilers Babin M. E., Grigoriev R. V., Dubovsky S. V., Levchuk A. P. Annual fuel efficiency individual gas boilers

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Board № (full): 3 (23) 2010 year
Filesize: 452.12 kB
Downloads: 3652
The article substantiates the urgency of a correct assessment of the average annual (seasonal) fuel efficiency of individual heating systems based on gas boilers that implemented widely in Ukraine. Based on analysis of published data, it is revealed that the cyclic mode of small boiler operation is accompanied by significant loss of efficiency due to additional loss - heat loss of availability. Therefore, estimates of the average annual fuel efficiency of such boilers by the passport data of thermal efficiency should be considered as unacceptable. Due to the lack of demands for mandatory determination and presentation of data about additional losses of availability in technical standards in Ukraine, the formulae for approximate determination of such losses are proposed in the paper. Estimations of seasonal fuel efficiency of domestic boilers under the architectural and climatic conditions of Ukraine are performed. They show that this figure can vary 50 - 79% depending on the degree of the boiler technological
perfection. It was drawn a conclusion about the necessity to introduce in Ukraine the harmonized international standards for estimation of the domestic boiler efficiency by the average annual fuel efficiency with the mandatory presentation of actual values of availability losses in passport characteristics.

Keywords: average, loss, individual, system, seasonal, heat, gas, boilers, operational, ready.

Babin M. E., Dubovskoy S. V., Kobernik V. S., Reisig V. A. Emission of nitric oxide in heat technological equipment Babin M. E., Dubovskoy S. V., Kobernik V. S., Reisig V. A. Emission of nitric oxide in heat technological equipment

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Board № (full): 1 (17) 2008 year
Filesize: 616.23 kB
Downloads: 3490
The calculation method for determination of the nitrogen oxides emission index is offered without account¬ing the measures for the reduction of emission. A method takes into account kinetics of the nitrogen oxides production and destruction upon the fuel burning in heat power setting.

Keywords: oxide of nitrogen, index of emission, time of chemical relaxation.
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